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【转载】九大状语从句总复习  

2014-06-04 17:30:49|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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本文转载自快乐英语《九大状语从句总复习》

九大状语从句总复习

状语从句在主从复合句中修饰主句中的动词、形容词或副词等,按意义可以分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等状语从句。

一.时间状语从句。

通常由从属连词when, whenever, as, while, before, after, as soon as, till, until, since, once (一旦), hardly……when…, no sooner…….than…; 等引导。例如:

The cyclist started just as the lights changed to green.

Whenever we met with difficulties , they cam to help us.

He didn’t leave his office until he had finished the day’s work.

应注意的问题

1.在时间状语从句中,通常要用动词的一般现在时态表示一般将来时态,用一般过去时态表示过去将来时态。但when 引导一般疑问句或名词性从句时不受上述语法规则的限制,因此,应该加以区分。例如:

When China will enter WTO depends on the bilateral (双边的)joint efforts.

Once you understand the rules of the game, you’ll enjoy it.

2.when , while, as 的不同用法。一般说来,当主、从句的动作是同时发生的事,三者可以换用。when 既可以引导一个持续动作,也可以引导一个短暂动作,可用于主句和从句动作同时发生或从句动作先于主句动作;while 引导的动作必须是持续性的,强调主句和从句的动作同时发生,往往侧重主句和从句动作的对比;as 用于引导在某行为的继续中发生某事继续之行为,所以多与过去进行时连用,翻译成一边……一边……”或者表示动作的变化,翻译成随着……”

例如:

I hope you’ll think of my words as/when/while you drive on the busy roads.

When he realized it, the chance had been lost.

When he came home, I was cooking dinner.

I was fat when I was a child.

He took a bath while I was preparing dinner.

As I was walking down the street, an American asked me for the directions to the nearest station.

He sang songs as he was taking a bath.

As he gets older he gets more optimistic.

    另外还必须注意 whenwhile 的特殊用法。when 可以表示就在这时,突然之意;而while 则可以表示对比的含义,常可译作。例如:

She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.(NMET95)

A. whom    B. where      C. which       D. while

答案:D.  本句的意思是她认为我在谈论她女儿,然而,实际上,我在谈论我女儿。

 再如:

I was about to go to bed when the phone rang a second time.

我正准备去睡觉,就在这时电话铃又响了。

3since before 的用法区别。两者都可用于 “It + be + since/ before-从句的句型,区别在于 since 表示自从…… 以来,所在主、从句的谓语动词的时态关系是:It is/has been some time since sb did something.  before 的含义则是(过了多久)才……”,主、从句的时态关系是:It was/ had been some time before sb did sth 表示过去和将来时,两者相应的句型分别是:It was some time since sb had done something. It will be some time before sb does something. 例如:

It was / had been years before I came back from abroad.

It will be five years before we meet again.

4.一些表示时间的名词词组如: the first time, the second time, last time the moment, the minutethe year, every time, each time , next time, 或副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可以引导时间状语从句。例如:

I’ll tell you about it the moment you come.

I recognized her the minute I saw her.

I’m going to see him next time he comes to Shanghai.

He left Europe the year World War II broke out.

I got in touch with him immediately I received his letter.

My sister came directly( = as soon as ) she got my message.

5.till until

till until 意义相同,多数情况下可以换用,但用以强调,句首多用until; 在强调结构或与not 连用时多用until. 例如:

Nothing can be done till/until the boss returns.

We waited till/until they came back.

Until we know the facts, we can’t do anything about it.

Not until midnight did the noise of the street stop.

6.hardly……whenno sooner……than相当于as soon as 之意,也可引导时间状语从句。从句谓语动词用一般过去时,主句谓语动词用过去完成时。hardly no sooner 置于句首时,语气较强,主句的谓语要部分倒装。例如:

We had hardly begun when we were told to stop.

= Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop.

The spy had no sooner returned home than he was told to go to another country.

= No sooner had the spy returned home than he was told to go to another country.

 

二.地点状语从句。

地点状语从句由 wherewherever 引导, 在主句前、后都可。where 表示特指,wherever 则表示泛指。但不少学生易将其和定语从句混淆,再者有的同学对地点状语从句不太注意,所以往往做错。例如:

You should make it a rule to leave things ___ you can find them again.  (NMET99)

A.when      B.where         C.then            D.there

答案:B.  注意它引导的不是定语从句。

After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child.(NMET 96)

A.which         B. where      C. that          D. when

答案:B. 这是一个由where 引导的定语从句,修饰先行词the small town.。再如:

Where there is a will, there’s a way.

九大状语从句总复习 2 

状语从句在主从复合句中修饰主句中的动词、形容词或副词等,按意义可以分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等状语从句。

 

三.原因状语从句。

1.原因状语从句多由because, since, as 引导。because 引导的从句一般放在句末,表示直接的原因,语气最强,回答why提出的问题,重点在从句;since 引导的从句一般放在句首,表已知的原因,全句重在交代结果,比because 语气弱,常译作既然 as 引导的从句放在句首或句末,表示比较明显的原因,说明因果关系,语气较弱,重点在主句,译作由于。例如:

_____ you have seen both fighters,_____ will win ?(上海 95)

A.Since; do you think who      B.As; who you think

C.When; whoever             D.Since; who do you think

答案:D.   since 表示既然,所传达的信息是显而易见的。再如:

As all the seats are full, he had to stand waiting.

---“Why aren’t you coming with us to the concert ?”

---“Because I have got a bad headache.”

   此外,for 也可表示原因, 但它是并列连词,引出并列分句,表示间接原因,用来补充说明内容,或据此而作出某种推断。例如:

She must have wept, for there are tear trails on her cheeks.

2.now that也可引导原因状语从句,意思是既然,与since 同义,但更突出事实本身。

 

四.目的状语从句。

通常由so that, in order that, so, in case“以防、以免等连词引导。例如:

He took the medicine on time so that he might get well again.

The teacher must speak clearly so that his students can/may understand well.

She has bought the book in order that she can follow the TV lessons.

1.目的状语从句中的谓语常含有may/might, can/could, should , will/would等情态动词,通常主句在前,从句在后,主句与从句之间没有逗号。

2in order that 引导的目的状语从句和so that 引导的状语从句可以换用,但in order that多用于正式文体中, so 可用于口语或非正式文体中。例如:

We’ll sit nearer the front so (that) we can hear better.

3. in case 在非正式文体中,常引导目的状语从句,表示以防、以免等含义。例如:

He left early in case he should miss the train.

Take your raincoat in case it rains/ should rain.

 

五.结果状语从句。

通常由连词so that, so…that, such… that等引导。例如:

He had overslept, so that he was late for work.

He was so angry that he left the room without saying a word.

He made such an excellent speech that everyone admired him.

1.so…thatsuch…that 引导的结果状语从句都表示主句的动作或状态达到一定的程度而引起的结果。

so 是副词,用来修饰形容词、副词、分词或其它结构,such 是形容词,用来修饰名词或名词短语。例如:

There were so many people in the room that we couldn’t get in.

So badly was he injured that he had to go to the hospital. (so短语位于句首时,主句须倒装)

The book is so written that it gives a quite wrong idea of facts.

He told us such a funny story that we all laughed.

such修饰单数可数名词且名词前有形容词时,可用so替换such, 冠词与形容词交换位置,构成“so+ adj. +a(an) +名词。上面的句子可以写成:

He told us so funny a story that we all laughed.

又如:This is such a beautiful chair that I’m thinking of buying it.

     (= This is so beautiful a chair that I’m thinking of buying it.)

2.如何区别so that 引导的目的状语从句和结果状语从句?

1.根据上下文及句子所表达的意思判断。

2.根据句子的结构来判断。从句之前有逗号的常是结果状语从句;从句前有情态动词的多半是目的状语从句。例如:

She hurried , so that she caught the bus.(结果)

She hurried so that she might catch the bus.(目的)

I went to the lecture early, so that I got a good seat.(结果)

I’m going to the lecture early so that I may get a good seat.( 目的)

 

状语从句在主从复合句中修饰主句中的动词、形容词或副词等,按意义可以分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等状语从句。

 

.让步状语从句。

1.由however, whatever, whenever, whoever等引导,相当于no matter how/what/when/who 等。例如:

We’ll have to finish the job,_____. (NMET99)

A. long it takes however       B. it takes however long

C. long however it takes       D. however long it takes

答案: D.    however 是副词性引导词,必须直接位于所修饰的形容词long之前,并放在句首引导状语从句。

应该注意:however, whatever, whenever, wherever 等还可以引导名词性从句,而no matter how, no matter what, no matter when, no matter where等只能引导状语从句。例如:

Whatever I said couldn’t cause his interest in the topic.

2.though, although, as, even though/if 等引导让步状语从句,不能与 but 连用,但可于yet连用。

(1).as引导的让步状语从句,必须倒装表语形容词、名词(前面不用冠词)或者副词状语或者动词原形,though 引导的让步状语从句可以倒装,也可以不倒装,而although引导的不能倒装。例如:

He didn’t light the fire though/although it was cold.

Although he is very old, (yet) he still jogs every day.

Rich as/though he is(=Although he is rich), I don’t envy him.

Difficult that task was, they managed to finish it in time.

Child as he is, he knows a lot.

Much as I love it, I’ll not buy it.

Try as they may, they won’t succeed.

(2).even if, even though 表示即使,纵然,有退一步设想的意味,多用于书面语中。

例如:

I’ll do it, even if it takes me all the afternoon.

Even if he did say so, we can not be sure that he was telling the truth.

(3).whether(…or)引导让步状语从句,提供两个或两个以上供选择的条件。注意此时的whether不能换成if.  例如:

Whether he drives or (whether he) takes the train, he’ll be there on time.

 

七.条件状语从句

条件状语从句用if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that, provided, providing, now that, in that 等引导。除了应注意这些词的语义差别之外,还需注意,在条件状语从句中不能用将来时,只能用一般现在时表示一般将来时。例如:

If China becomes strong and powerful, we’ll never bully other countries.

As long as we don’t lose heart, we’ll turn our dreams into realities.

He won’t believe anything unless he sees it with his own eyes.

I will lend you the money on condition that you pay it back in one month.

有时if 条件句中也用will, 但此时用来表示主语的意愿。例如:

If you will come to work in our city, I’ll try my best to meet your demands.(如果你愿意来我市工作,我将尽力满足你的要求。)

 

八.方式状语从句

1.方式状语从句用 as, just as, as if, as though 引导。

2.关于方式状语从句值得注意两点:

1.as 表示行为方式;

2.在打比方与事实相反或不可能实现时,as if /though 引导的从句用虚拟语气。但当句子谓语为过去时态时,特别是当句子谓语为look, seem, taste, smell等感官动词时,从句谓语动词不用虚拟语气。例如:

I have changed the plan as you suggested.

When at Rome do as the Romans do.(入乡随俗)

I have loved you as if you were my own son.

It looks as if it is going to rain.

 

九.比较状语从句

比较状语从句常由than, as…as , not so/as…as,  the more…, the more …等引导。例如:

He didn’t do as much as he had promised.

I know you as well as any member of your family.

Now we can produce much more steel than Japan.

The longer you stay with him, the better you will know him. 

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